Sustentabilidad

Libélula sostenible

Dragonfly, Vincent Callebaut

Formulado como un diseño conceptual basado en un edificio urbano sostenible, la libélula compone un rascacielos que disfruta las ventajas de la vida rural1. Ubicado en el borde sur de la isla Rooselvelt, se constituye como un organismo íntegramente autosuficiente de 132 pisos, que aprovecha los recursos naturales para abastecerse de energía. En sus alas contiene 28 tipos de campos agrícolas que producen frutas, hortalizas, granos, carne y lácteos, extremando el concepto de granja vertical.

Callebaut propone evitar la aspersión del planeta y resolver el problema alimentario para los habitantes del planeta, que en el año 2050 se calcula serán 9.000 millones2. En su diseño, propone reinventar el modelo energético tradicional, que difiere entre los países occidentales, los países emergentes y los países en vías de desarrollo. De igual modo, esa diferenciación se percibe entre las áreas urbanas y las rurales en casi todos los países.

Esta ciudad ecológica tiene como principal reincorporar la actividad agrícola en grandes centros urbanos. El diseño enfatizando el rol trascendente que debe cumplir la agricultura urbana en el uso y la reutilización de los recursos naturales. También en el tratamiento de residuos biodegradables, para completar el circulo de flujos de un sistema ecológico.

Para Callebaut, la arquitectura tiene que estar al servicio de esta nueva agricultura y diseñar este nuevo deseo social en este contexto de mutación ecológica y autonomía alimentaria. Por lo tanto, propone un prototipo de granja urbana que incorpora un programa mixto de viviendas, oficinas y laboratorios. Un diseño de ingeniería ecológica, donde los espacios agrícolas están dispuestos de forma vertical. Esta granja se desarrolla en varias plantas y establece todas las aplicaciones sostenibles para la agricultura ecológica. Estos espacios están aplicados a alcanzar una producción intensiva y variada, con parte del cultivo realizado por sus propios habitantes.

La torre actúa como un verdadero organismo vivo que es autosuficiente en agua, energía y bio-fertilización. Superpone en cada piso, además de espacios para la agricultura, la ganadería que asegura la producción de carne, leche, aves y huevos. Los terrenos agrícolas son regenerados continuamente con humus orgánico para que actúen como reactores biológicos. La diversidad de cultivos evita el lavado de estratos de sustrato blando.

DRAGONFLY Callebaut tecnne

La arquitectura del prototipo Dragonfly sugiere reinventar el edificio vertical (que delineaba el auge urbanístico de la ciudad de Nueva York desde el siglo XIX) tanto estructural y funcionalmente como ecológica y energéticamente. Para garantizar la diversidad social y un ciclo de vida permanente (24h/24) en la torre, la programación mixta se articula principalmente en torno a dos polos de vivienda y lugares de trabajo. Alrededor de viviendas, oficinas y laboratorios de investigación, así como de los espacios agrícolas y de ocio más privados a los más públicos, están diseñados en jardines, huertas, huertos, prados, arrozales, granjas y campos suspendidos. La distribución de los flujos se realiza alrededor de una verdadera columna vertebral segura, distribuyendo en bucle los numerosos ascensores, los montacargas y los huecos de escalera que dan servicio a todos los niveles, separando simultáneamente las entradas y salidas recicladas de plantas, animales y seres humanos3.

El programa mixto formado por oficinas y vivienda se dispone en las dos torres principales. Ambas torres se orientan simétricamente y pueden expandirse en vertical, de tal manera que viviendas y oficinas se intercalan entre jardines y granjas naturales. Las alas de metal y vidrio imitan el exoesqueleto de la libélula para otorgar la protección necesaria a las actividades que se desarrollan en el interior. También establecen las condiciones de viento y sol apropiadas para lograr adecuados niveles de nutrientes que permitan la germinación de los vegetales y la vida de los animales.

El espacio creado entre las caras transparentes de cada ala del edificio acumula aire caliente para abastecer al complejo durante el invierno. Este recurso se complementa con un sistema de ventilación natural que, asociado a una planta de evaporación de agua, enfría el aire durante el verano. Los paramentos verticales están diseñados para filtrar el agua de lluvia y tratarla orgánicamente. De este modo, puede ser reutilizada en el riego de los vegetales.

DRAGONFLY Callebaut tecnne

En este sistema térmico “pasivo”, la integración de las energías renovables ha sido pensada para satisfacer las necesidades de un edificio urbano energéticamente autosuficiente. La proa sur de la libélula produce la mitad de la energía eléctrica necesaria para su funcionamiento mediante la incorporación de un escudo solar. La otra mitad está garantizada por tres máquinas de viento con ejes verticales.

Las zonas agrícolas se ubican lindantes a las viviendas y tienen su propio sistema de elevadores. De esta forma, el flujo de movimiento de los huertos se canaliza independiente del movimiento cotidiano de los habitantes del complejo. Los espacios para oficinas e investigación son los más alejados y también poseen un sistema independiente de elevadores verticales. Todo el sistema circulatorio permite distribuir el flujo de movimiento en forma ordenada dentro de los 350.000 m2 y los 700 metros de altura del edificio.

©Marcelo Gardinetti

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Notas:

1 “La arquitectura tiene que estar al servicio de esta nueva agricultura y diseñar este nuevo deseo social en este contexto de mutación ecológica y autonomía alimentaria. El proyecto Dragonfly propone, por tanto, la construcción de un prototipo de granja urbana en torno a un programa mixto de viviendas, oficinas y laboratorios de ingeniería ecológica, espacios agrícolas dispuestos verticalmente en varias plantas y cultivados en parte por sus propios habitantes. Esta granja vertical establece todas las aplicaciones sostenibles en la agricultura ecológica basadas en la producción intensiva variada según el ritmo de las estaciones. Esta agricultura nutritiva está además a favor de la reutilización de los residuos biodegradables y del mantenimiento de la energía y de los recursos renovables para una planificación de la densificación ecosistémica”. Vincent Callebaut, “Dragonfly, a metabolic farm for urban agriculture” en http://vincent.callebaut.org/object/090429_dragonfly/dragonfly [Consultado el 20-11-2019]

2 En esta articulación entre el manifiesto teórico y la formalización de un proyecto que lo corporiza es donde se expresa de manera más elocuente la naturaleza sustancial y contemporánea del trabajo de Callebaut. Es también en ese encuentro entre teoría y práctica donde pueden establecerse vínculos con otras discusiones y otros grandes aportes disciplinares, realizados a lo largo del siglo pasado. Los síntomas de la contemporaneidad se expresan en la obra de Callebaut y en ella parecen resonar los ecos familiares de otras vanguardias, como alguna vez fueron las propuestas de Sant´Elía, Archigram, Amancio Williams, Rem Koolhaas y tantos más. El análisis de la obra de Callebaut nos permite retomar una de las cuestiones, presentadas al inicio del trabajo: la referida a la actual relación entre teoría y práctica. Como muchas veces hemos planteado este vínculo ha sido, desde sus orígenes, inestable, cambiante. Y, como se ha mencionado, pareciera que en la actualidad hay una inclinación de la balanza hacia la cuestión de la práctica en detrimento de la especulación teórica” Julio Valentino, Carlos G. Giménez y Marta Mirás, “Una práctica teórica. Las propuestas de V. Callebaut” Instituto de arte americano e investigaciones estéticas N° 223, agosto de 2018

3 “Delineando la orilla de la isla Roosevelt, la torre se ensancha a cada lado de su base para integrar mejor los flujos que la atraviesan y para acoger dos puertos deportivos a lo largo del East River. Este ensanchamiento forma dos enormes bóvedas fotovoltaicas como un vestido solar que flota sobre estos dos puertos urbanos: en el lado oeste del puerto deportivo, los pontones de madera de los taxis se abren panorámicamente en la orilla del Midtown y en el lado este del puerto deportivo, el mercado flotante orientado hacia el distrito de Queens está diseñado para distribuir a través del río la producción de alimentos de esta granja vertical hasta el corazón de Manhattan y a su millón y medio de deslizadores de la ciudad. Además, estos dos puertos deportivos albergan dos enormes estanques de acuicultura, verdadero tanque de agua blanda filtrada por las fachadas plantadas y dedicada a ser reinyectada en la red hidropónica de la torre Dragonfly. De acuerdo con la evolución de la agricultura urbana potenciada por la FAO (Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación) que desde 2007 se ha dado cuenta de que la agricultura orgánica a gran escala podría nutrir al planeta, el proyecto Dragonfly desafía a la ciudad de Nueva York a repensar su producción de alimentos.Para conceptualizar este proyecto y dar nuestro punto de vista en los debates sobre la crisis ecológica y social, Dragonfly se establece a lo largo del río East en el borde sur de la isla Rooselvelt en Nueva York, entre la isla de Manattan y el distrito de Queens. Para hacer frente a la presión de la tierra, Dragonfly se extiende verticalmente bajo la forma de una torre biónica, reubicando un nuevo biotopo urbano para la fauna y la flora local y recreando una producción de alimentos autogestionada por los habitantes en el corazón de la Gran Manzana. Piso a piso, la torre superpone no sólo la ganadería que garantiza la producción de carne, leche, aves y huevos, sino también los terrenos agrícolas, verdaderos reactores biológicos regenerados continuamente con humus orgánico. Diversifica las variedades cultivadas para evitar el lavado de estratos de sustrato blando. Así, los cultivos se suceden verticalmente según su capacidad agronómica para proporcionar algunos elementos del suelo entre las esencias que se siembran y cosechan. La torre, verdadero organismo vivo, se convierte así en metabólica y autosuficiente en agua, energía y bio-fertilización” Vincent Callebaut, ibídem

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Abstract

Formulated as a conceptual design based on a sustainable urban building, the dragonfly composes a skyscraper that enjoys the advantages of rural living. Located on the southern edge of Rooselvelt Island, it is an entirely self-sufficient 132-story organism that harnesses natural resources for energy. In its wings it contains 28 types of agricultural fields that produce fruits, vegetables, grains, meat and dairy products, extending the concept of vertical farm.

DRAGONFLY Callebaut tecnne

Imágenes: ©Vincent Callebaut

Publicado en TECNNE ©Marcelo Gardinetti       

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