Diseño

Proyecto de Iluminación para el Centro de Consignatarios de Hacienda

Por Verónica La Cruz

All u need is light estudio formado por las arquitectas Verónica La Cruz y Giuliana Nieva, realizó el diseño de iluminación para CCDH.

Se trata de un edificio de oficinas para renta, obra de los arquitectos Ignacio Montaldo y Eugenio Ottolenghi, emplazado en un terreno en esquina de 26m x 14,45m de lados con una superficie de 372 m2.

El entorno es de baja densidad y de construcciones residenciales de poca altura.

El edificio está conformado por planta baja más dos pisos y un subsuelo para cocheras y salas de máquinas que toma toda la superficie del terreno, parte de la cual se recupera en la planta baja como cubierta jardín.

El layout de las plantas fue diagramado de manera que estas se abrieran sobre la esquina para aprovechar las vistas francas sobre el parque y el hipódromo; la circulación vertical y el acceso al edificio están volcados al fondo del lote sobre la calle Tres Sargentos.

Su estructura es de hormigón armado con una viga perimetral de 65cm de alto y losas casetonadas de 25cm de altura que resuelven luces aproximadas de 7m x 8m y un cerramiento de ladrillos estudiado y diseñado para la función que cada muro debía cumplir.

Un muro perimetral de cierre contiene la esquina y el jardín y a través de la técnica en la utilización del mampuesto se genera un movimiento que ensancha la vereda hacia el acceso, proporcionando un remanso para el ingreso al edificio.

Trabajamos desde el comienzo del proyecto junto con el arquitecto Ignacio Montaldo y rápidamente llegamos a la conclusión de que la iluminación debía integrarse a la estructura y la protagonista debía ser la luz y no su fuente.

El proyecto de iluminación surgió entonces fuertemente vinculado a la arquitectura que en este caso es neta y simple, con materiales utilizados en su expresión mínima y natural.

Hicimos uso de la luz para resaltar esos materiales, su color y  textura en el caso del ladrillo de la fachada donde las diferentes trabas y el trabajo con las juntas se transforman en un recurso único con un resultado plástico que da el carácter particular a la cara del edificio.

La premisa al comenzar el proyecto fue que la estructura debía quedar a la vista. El módulo del casetonado no coincidía con las dimensiones de ningún artefacto estándar por lo que surgieron varias opciones.

En primer lugar se pensó en un artefacto tipo plafón que se aplicaría al fondo de losa, pero temiamos que se encajonara la luz y se iluminaran los laterales de las vigas,  algo que no queríamos que sucediera.

En segundo lugar surgió la idea de colocar un artefacto estándar 60x60cm de lado embutido en un plano que cerrara por completo el hueco que formaba el cruce de los nervios de la losa, pero en ese caso aparecería un tercer elemento que no nos hacía falta; además conceptualmente era errado instalar y embutir un artefacto preparado para un sistema modular de cielorraso en una estructura de vigas de hormigón.

Finalmente surgió la solución adoptada: se construyó un artefacto a medida de la estructura, compuesto por un chapón fijado al fondo de la losa y que funciona como soporte para las lámparas y equipos y un difusor de tela tensada de PVC. De esta manera se logró que el plano lumínico quede al ras de los nervios de la estructura y el hueco sea cubierto por completo por un pleno de luz.

Asimismo, la luz general de las oficinas se resolvió incorporando la iluminación a la estructura. Con este recurso además de iluminar nos permitimos jugar con una idea abstracta de un dibujo con luz, donde convergen la trama de luz del cielorraso y la trama del ladrillo con el tamiz de luz natural que produce. Es un constante juego de luz y sombra, de lleno y vacío. En nuestro caso el lleno es construido (porque aloja al artefacto) y a su vez es vacío de luz traspasante.

Las fuentes son lámparas fluorescentes compactas tipo L de 36W con temperatura de color de 4000 Kelvin, con balastos electrónicos.

El nivel de iluminación proyectado es de 300 Lux promedio. La propuesta fue complementar esta iluminación general con una luz de escritorio para que pueda ser comandada y regulada por cada usuario desde su puesto de trabajo. Como la luz natural del lugar era mucha, de esta manera le dábamos la opción a cada persona de poder aumentar la iluminación de su puesto en la medida en que lo requiriera.

Al tratarse de un edificio de renta nunca estuvo en discusión la adopción de un sistema de control con sensores de luz natural, eso se desestimó desde un comienzo.

El exterior fue resuelto con proyectores asimétricos con lámpara de descarga de sodio de alta presión de 150W sobre el acceso y con reflector de revolución con lámpara de descarga de sodio de alta presión de 70W para el resto de la fachada; estos últimos reemplazan a los embutidos de piso propuestos inicialmente y que por razones constructivas no pudieron ser montados.

Con la elección de esta lámpara resolvimos dos temas: la eficiencia y el destaque de color, su espectro cromático convive muy bien con el ladrillo.

La luz es rasante para acentuar las sombras de las tramas de dicho material.

El color y la luminosidad conviven muy bien con el entorno de edificios bajos y calles tranquilas y arboladas.

En la escalera  y circulaciones se utilizaron unos artefactos difusores con efecto de luz indirecta y en el palier se colocaron luminarias semi embutidas aptas para colocar en las cajas empotradas en el hormigón de la losa.

Trabajamos, como en todos nuestros proyectos, con fuentes eficientes de vida útil prolongada y consumo reducido. El tema del mantenimiento de la instalación fue prioritario.

Nuestra experiencia en este caso fue la de apropiarnos de la estructura y del diseño propuesto por los arquitectos y sentirnos parte de él como iluminadoras.

La obra fue premiada con la Medalla de Plata 2009, Premio CTIBOR-CAYC La Arquitectura y el Ladrillo en la XII Bienal Internacional de Arquitectura BA09.

Ficha técnica de la obra

•  Nombre del Proyecto: Edificio de oficinas para renta del Centro de Consignatarios de Hacienda.

•  Ubicación: Dardo Rocha y Tres Sargentos, Acassuso, Bs. As., Argentina

•  Proyecto y dirección lumínica: Arqs. Verónica La Cruz – Giuliana Nieva – Estudio All u need is light

•  Asesor eléctrico: Ing. Daniel Milito

•  Superficie total y construida: 700 m2

•  Tiempo de ejecución: años 2007-2008

•   Potencia Total Instalada: 10Kw

Fotografia: Daniela Mac Adden

BLOC | tecnne

Mayo de 2012.

 

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