Sustentabilidad

Protectores solares de alta tecnología

 

Torres Al Bahar, Aedas arquitectura

Abu Dhabi desde hace algunos años parece competir con el vecino Dubai en términos de virtuosismo arquitectónico. Las reciente torres gemelas, aunque no supera el récord de altura de otras torres en los Emiratos Árabes Unidos, refleja un desafío de diseño en términos de confort interior con un bajo impacto medioambiental gracias a un sistema de control inteligente de la radiación solar.

Aedas arquitectura con sede en Londres ha ganado el concurso internacional para diseñar un nuevo símbolo urbano de la capital de los Emiratos gracias a un diseño que combina la estética con la sostenibilidad. El Abu Dhabi Investment Council (ADIC), más conocido como el cuartel general de Al Bahar, consta de dos torres gemelas sinuosas destinados a albergar principalmente oficinas y restaurantes.

El creador de la protección solar dinámica  Abdulmajid Karanouh, trabajo con el fin de evitar el sobrecalentamiento de las fachadas de vidrio sin comprometer la calidad de la iluminación en interiores naturales. Este innovador tipo de protección solar, gracias a un sistema de vinculación asistida por ordenador, se abre y se cierra para modular la intensidad de la luz natural y por lo tanto garantizar a sus usuarios un alto nivel de confort visual y térmico. La idea no es del todo nueva, se utiliza en la tradición árabe para difundir la luz directa y crear un microclima confortable. De hecho, en los Emiratos todavía podemos encontrar un blindaje perforado que se remonta a 400 años atrás. Por tanto, podemos decir que la función de protección y la geometría creada por Karanouh es una interpretación moderna de mashrabiya.

El escudo consta de una malla poligonal de seis lados unidos a la superficie lateral de las torres a una distancia de dos metros. Cada polígono soporta seis triángulos equiláteros, dentro de los cuales se abren y cierran, seis paneles en forma de triángulo rectángulo de fibras de vidrio. El ordenador, mediante la apertura y cierre de los orificios poligonales en función del movimiento del sol, crea una decoración cambiante, haciendo las fachadas diferente en cada momento del día. Este sistema inteligente de protección permite un ahorro doble: se requiere menos luz artificial, al permitri filtrar los rayos del sol, y reduce a la mitad el consumo de aire acondicionado debido a que la tela puede sombrear, facilitando la convección de aire y disminuyendo la temperatura de las superficies de las fachadas. De hecho, el espacio de aire entre la visera y la parte delantera es ideal para acelerar el viento, un “efecto Venturi” que ayuda a disipar el calor absorbido por el vidrio. En la práctica, la pantalla es muy similar a un sistema pasivo de aire acondicionado, que en este caso consume mucha menos energía, es decir, sólo la potencia requerida para mover los paneles perpendiculares al plano en el que se encuentra la fachada expuesta a la radiación solar directa.

La idea de utilizar la energía solar para accionar el movimiento de los paneles de detección fue abandonada inmediatamente por los diseñadores debido a la pérdida fuerza debido a la arena abrasiva soplada por el viento, que requiere la limpieza diaria con agua pulverizada y no justifica los beneficios que se derivan de la producción de energía renovable. La firma de ingeniería Arup, socio de Aedas, ha estimado que la “mashrabiya inteligente” tiene el potencial de reducir la carga de calor en por lo menos 20 por ciento de ahorro, ofreciendo atractivos en términos de emisiones de gases por el efecto invernadero.

Fabiana Cambiaso, febrero de 2013©

Versione Italiana

Abu Dhabi, da alcuni anni sembra competere con la vicina Dubai in fatto di virtuosismi architettonici. Le recenti torri gemelle Al Baharad, pur non superando il record in altezza delle altre torri negli Emirati Arabi, concretizzano una sfida progettuale in termini di comfort indoor a basso impatto ambientale grazie ad un sistema di controllo intelligente della radiazione solare. Lo studio londinese di architettura Aedas ha meritatamente vinto il concorso internazionale di progettazione per ideare un nuovo simbolo urbano della capitale degli Emirati grazie ad un progetto capace di coniugare estetica con sostenibilità. Si tratta dell’Abu Dhabi Investment Council (ADIC), meglio conosciuto come il quartiere generale Al Baha, costituito da due sinuose torri gemelle destinate ad ospitare prevalentemente uffici e ristoranti. 
L’ideatore della schermatura solare dinamica è Abdulmajid Karanouh al fine di evitare il surriscaldamento delle facciate vetrate senza compromettere la qualità dell’illuminazione naturale indoor. Tipologia innovativa di schermatura solare, grazie ad un sistema di cinematismo assistito da un computer, si apre e si chiude per modulare l’intensità della luce naturale e garantire così ai suoi fruitori elevati livelli di benessere visivo e termico. Idea non del tutto nuova perché largamente impiegata nella tradizione araba per diffondere la luce diretta e creare un microclima confortevole. Infatti, negli Emirati possiamo ancora trovare schermature in legno traforato risalenti a 400 anni fa. Potremmo dunque affermare che per funzione e geometria la schermatura ideata da Karanouh è una rivisitazione in chiave moderna della mashrabiya.

 La schermatura è costituita da una maglia poligonale a sei lati agganciata alla superficie laterale delle torri ad una distanza di due metri. Ogni poligono supporta sei triangoli equilateri, all’interno dei quali si aprono e si chiudono, come degli origami tridimensionali, sei pannelli a forma di triangolo rettangolo realizzati in fibre di vetro. Il computer, aprendo e chiudendo i fori poligonali in funzione del movimento del sole, crea una mutevole decorazione rendendo le facciate diverse in ogni momento del giorno. 
Questo sistema intelligente di schermatura permette un doppio risparmio energetico: richiede meno luce artificiale lasciando il tessuto filtrare i raggi del sole, e dimezza il consumo di aria condizionata perché il tessuto riesce a ombreggiare, e facilitare i moti convettivi dell’aria abbassando la temperatura superficiale delle facciate. 
Infatti, l’intercapedine d’aria tra lo schermo solare e la facciata è ideale per accelerare il vento, che per “effetto Venturi” aiuta a dissipare il calore assorbito dalle vetrate. In pratica, lo schermo è molto simile ad un sistema passivo di condizionamento dell’aria, che in questo caso consuma molta meno energia, cioè solo quella necessaria per traslare i pannelli perpendicolarmente al piano in cui si trova la facciata esposta alla radiazione solare diretta in un dato momento.

L’idea di sfruttare l’energia solare per alimentare la movimentazione dei pannelli schermanti è stata abbandonata immediatamente dai progettisti in quanto i costi, dovuti alla perdita di efficienza per la forza abrasiva della sabbia spinta dal vento e alla necessaria pulizia giornaliera con acqua nebulizzata, non avrebbero giustificato i benefici ricavabili dalla produzione di energia rinnovabile. Lo studio d’ingegneria Arup, partner di Aedas, ha stimato che la “mashrabiya intelligente” ha il potenziale di ridurre il carico termico di almeno il 20 percento apportando risparmi interessanti anche in termini di emissioni climalteranti.

Biografia

Aedas è stata fondata nel 2002 da una fusione due importanti esperienze di pratica architettonica in UK e Hong Kong. La visione poi, come ancora oggi rimane, fu di creare una società di progettazione veramente internazionale e saldamente radicata al contesto in cui si trovava ad operare.

La formazione di Aedas è stata una risposta diretta ad un mercato sempre più globalizzato, in cui i clienti si aspettano universalmente alti standard di progettazione e consegna. Oggi, la portata globale dell’azienda, combinata al suo talento in design e tecnologia, fornisce i più alti standard di progettazione architettonica, insieme ad una vasta conoscenza del mercato locale, clima, materiali, cultura, economia, edilizia e normativa.

Abdulmajid Karanouh èun architetto, con un MSc in computational design e ingegneria della facciata. Socio dello studio  Aedas a Londra è stato progettista capo delle torri Al Bahr ed è specializzato in Progettazione di componenti & integrazione. Il suo interesse nelle prestazioni orientate e design reattivo ha sviluppato un approccio che include l’integrazione di matematica e ingegneria dal concetto di progettazione alla realizzazione.

Esperienza passata di Abdulmajid Karanouh riguarda l’ingegneria Hi-Tech di facciata con Folcrá dove ha sviluppato soluzioni per architetti, tra cui S. Calatrava e R. Rogers. Egli è ospite d’onore presso le università e seminari negli Stati Uniti, Regno Unito e Medio Oriente. E’ autore di articoli che riguardano l’integrazione della tecnologia nella progettazione di edifici.

English version

A quick glimpse at the upcoming weather for Abu Dhabi will show a week of intense sunshine, temperatures steadily above 100 degrees Fahrenheit with 0% chance of rain. In such extreme weather conditions, even architects listing environmental design as their top priority are up against a tough battle. Never mind that the sand can compromise the structural integrity of the building, the intense heat and glare can render a comfortable indoor environment relatively impossible if not properly addressed. For Abu Dhabi’s newest pair of towers, Aedas Architects have designed a responsive facade which takes cultural cues from the “mashrabiya”, a traditional Islamic lattice shading device.

Completed in June 2012, the 145 meter towers’ Masharabiya shading system was developed by the computational design team at Aedas. Using a parametric description for the geometry of the actuated facade panels, the team was able to simulate their operation in response to sun exposure and changing incidence angles during the different days of the year.

The screen opperates as a curtain wall, sitting two meters outside the buildings’ exterior on an independent frame. Each triangle is coated with fiberglass and programmed to respond to the movement of the sun as a way to reduce solar gain and glare. In the evening, all the screens will close. It is estimated that such a screen will reducing solar gain by more than 50 percent, and reduce the building’s need for energy-draining air conditioning.  Plus, the shade’s ability to filter the light has allowed the architects to be more selective in glass finished.  ”It (the screen) allows us to use more naturally tinted glass, which lets more light in so you have better views and less need of artificial light.  It’s using an old technique in a modern way, which also responds to the aspiration of the emirate to take a leadership role in the area of sustainability,” added Oborn.

For the project’s sustainable engineering and sensitive cultural and urban approach, the towers were awarded the 2012 Tall Building Innovation Award (be sure to check out our previous coverage on the additional winners here) by the Council of Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.

“The façade on Al Bahar, computer-controlled to respond to optimal solar and light conditions, has never been achieved on this scale before. In addition, the expression of this outer skin seems to firmly root the building in its cultural context,” explained Awards Juror Chris Wilkinson of Wilkinson Eyre Architects.

Such an award acknowledges the importance of the necessary integration of architectural form, structure, systems, and sustainable design strategies.

Biography

Aedas was established in 2002 in a ground-breaking merger that saw the fusion of two prominent UK and Hong Kong based architectural practices.  The vision then, as it remains today, was to create a truly international design company firmly rooted in every region it serves.

The formation of Aedas was in direct response to an increasingly globalised marketplace in which clients expect universally high standards of design and delivery. Today, the company’s global reach, combined with its design talent and technology, provides the highest standards of architectural design informed by extensive knowledge of local market, climate, materials, culture, economy, building industry and standards.

Abdulmajid Karanouh is an architect, with an MSc in computational design and façade engineering. An Associate at Aedas London he has been lead designer on Al Bahr Towers and has specialised in Systems Design & Integration. His interest in performance oriented and responsive design has led to the development of an approach which includes mathematical and engineering integration from concept design to realisation.

Abdulmajid’s past experience involves hi-tech façade engineering with Folcrá where he developed solutions for architects including S. Calatrava and R. Rogers. He is a guest speaker at universities and seminars in the US, UK, and the Middle East. He has authored papers addressing the integration of technology in building design.

Imágenes: © Aedas

TECNNE  |  Arquitectura + contextos


 

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