Diseño

La cantilever de Breuer

La silla oscilante de Marcel Breuer es una de las sillas más conocidas en el mundo, pero a menudo capta la atención de los consumidores por primera vez a través de imitaciones baratas. La afición de Breuer por el acero tubular y su conocimiento de cómo usarlo en la construcción de la silla, se puso de manifiesto en la silla Club ” B 3 “(Wassily) introducida en 1925.

Breuer fue revolucionario en el abandono de la construcción tradicional de la silla sobre una base de cuatro patas, pero no fue el creador de esta idea. El arquitecto holandés Mart Stam ya había introducido la noción de una silla en voladizo a Heinz Rasch y Ludwig Mies van der Rohe en 1926, durante la preparación de la exposición del Werkbund “Die Wohnung” Weissenhof en Stuttgart.

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe fue el primero en recoger la idea de una silla sin ayuda de la pierna con su tradicional modelo de “MR 10”, y continuó con la forma de barril lineal en una sola curva para el asiento. Ambas sillas se presentaron en la exposición “Die Wohnung” en 1927, donde Marcel Breuer las vio.

Aunque Breuer permitió que muchos de sus diseños tubulares de acero se produjeran como muebles estándar, cedió los derechos de producción de la “B 32” (sin brazos) y la “B 64” a Thonet . La queja de Stam sobre el uso de sus diseños fue rechazada por Breuer argumentando que él ya había diseñado un taburete en forma de U en 1925-6 para el comedor de la Bauhaus, anticipando el principio de la silla en voladizo.

La principal diferencia con el modelo de Stam estaba en la combinación de la construcción de acero tubular con Cuadros de madera para el asiento y la espalda, una técnica de madera curvada que hace referencia a los orígenes de la curvatura de acero tubular.

Aun cuando Breuer no fue el iniciador de la silla en voladizo, su libre elasticidad la convirtió en su mayor éxito comercial. Cuando la empresa italiana Gavina spa se hizo cargo de la producción de los diseños de Breuer en 1962, la “B 64” recibió el apodo de “Cesca” por  la hija adoptiva de Breuer, Francesca.

Vitra Design Museum, 2014©

Fotografía: Vitra

BLOC | tecnne


Notas:

Diseño: 1928

Producción: 1929 al presente

Fabricante: Gebrüder Thonet AG, Frankenberg en Eder, Alemania

Tamaño: 81 x 57 x 62.5; altura del asiento 45 cms

Material: acero tubular cromado, madera barnizada, madera curvada, mimbre

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