Archivo Siqueiros

Diego Rivera, Muralismo en restauro

La extensa tradición del muralismo moderno del país azteca encontró su ordenamiento esencial con el nuevo precepto pictórico mexicano entre 1920 y 1950 teniendo como fiel original la revolución de 1910. Existían como marco las luctuosas reyertas entre los periodos presidenciales de Adolfo de la Huerta (interino) y del general Álvaro Obregón (electo). Sin embargo el muralismo local era en sí un hecho de índole estrictamente artística, como lo es el aprovechamiento del muro para el Arte “autóctono”. Se imprimió a éste un claro sentido social partiendo de las sobrentendidas implicaciones como lo significa la plasmación de obras no adecuadas para el “mercado del Arte” impuesto por el “sistema capitalista”.

No obstante, ya en la década de 1930, los propios Estados Unidos no solamente introdujeron el muralismo mexicano, si no que desarrollaron una amplia actividad programada para edificios públicos. En esa época el país del Norte confrontaba en su territorio a los grandes muralistas del Mundo Occidental que a su vez representaban polos ideológicos opuestos. Por un lado los mexicanos representaban al nuevo Arte popular que podría simbolizar una propuesta artística que según JoaquímDolsRusiñol“posee una ideología de izquierdas donde el elemento ‘mercado elitista’ estuviese sustituido por una funcionalidad ideal radicalmente popular concediendo destacada importancia al mensaje comunicado. Lo cual como (es) lógico, ofrece un repertorio de posibilidades que también pueden ser aprovechadas por los sistemas totalitarios”.

Por el otro lado se encuentra el muralismo netamente elitista de José María Sert y Badía, pintor español nacido en Barcelona a fines de 1876. Poseía la Legión de Honor y S. M. el Rey Don Alfonso XIII lo había condecorado con la gran cruz de Isabel la Católica. En realidad había recubierto los mas importantes salones de toda Europa con sus grandes “murales marouflados” pintados sobre oro, plata, ligas preciosas y las mas espectaculares escenografías y decorados de los teatros e iglesias de Europa.

Los mexicanos, iniciadores del Movimiento Muralístico que representaba a una pléyade de notables, en que se destacó el genial “pintor-arqueólogo” Rufino Tamayo, fueron los que lanzaron el célebre “Manifiesto de Sindicato de Obreros Técnicos, Pintores y Escultores” en 1924. Ellos fueron: José Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros y Diego Rivera, documento que fue el faro teórico del movimiento, que dictó las pautas para un Sindicato de Pintores Muralistas, que ejecutó mas de mil obras públicas en todo México. Además de incentivar el Arte hacían hincapié en la “ética profesional”.

Las fotografías muestran la restauración de una obra mayor de Diego Rivera pintado en 1954, que en este momento esta siendo restaurado por D. Tellechea.

El retrato esta dedicado a CarmitaIgnarra de Reachi, hermosa actriz cubana y entonces esposa del importante coleccionista de Arte Santiago Reachi. que promocionó y valorizó mucho la pintura mexicana.

Fotografias: ©Domingo Tellechea

Colaboracion de Guillermina Guadarrama Peña

BLOC | tecnne

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